Main use of aluminum
The use of a substance depends to a large extent on the nature of the substance. Because aluminum has many excellent properties, aluminum has an extremely wide range of uses.
Aluminum and aluminum alloys are among the most economical materials available today. Since the beginning of 1956, the world's aluminum production has been the largest in the world. At present, the output and dosage of aluminum (in tons) is second only to steel and the second largest metal for human applications. Moreover, aluminum is rich in resources. According to preliminary calculations, the storage of aluminum accounts for more than 8% of the constituents of the earth's crust. .
Aluminum's light weight and corrosion resistance are two of its outstanding features.
1. The density of aluminum is very small, only 2.7 g/cm3. Although it is relatively soft, it can be made into various aluminum alloys, such as hard aluminum, super-hard aluminum, rust-proof aluminum, cast aluminum and the like. These aluminum alloys are widely used in the manufacturing industries of airplanes, automobiles, trains, and ships. In addition, a large number of aluminum and its aluminum alloys are used in space rockets, space shuttles, and satellites. For example, a supersonic aircraft consists of approximately 70% aluminum and its aluminum alloy. Aluminum is also used extensively in the construction of ships, and the amount of aluminum used in a large passenger ship often reaches several thousand tons.
2. The conductivity of aluminum is second only to silver, copper and gold. Although its conductivity is only 2/3 of that of copper, the density is only 1/3 of that of copper. Therefore, the same amount of electricity is delivered. The quality of aluminum wire is only copper wire. Half of it. The oxide film on the aluminum surface is not only resistant to corrosion but also has a certain degree of insulation, so aluminum has a wide range of uses in the electrical appliance manufacturing industry, the wire and cable industry, and the radio industry.
Aluminum is a good conductor of heat. Its thermal conductivity is three times higher than that of iron. Aluminum can be used in the manufacture of various heat exchangers, heat-dissipating materials and cookware.
3. Aluminum has good ductility (its ductility is second only to gold and silver), and it can be made into aluminum foil thinner than 0.01 mm at 100 °C ~ 150 °C. These aluminum foils are widely used for packaging cigarettes, candy, etc., and can also be made into aluminum wire, aluminum strips, and can roll various aluminum products.
4. The surface of aluminum is difficult to be corroded due to its dense oxide protective film. It is often used in the manufacture of chemical reactors, medical devices, refrigeration units, petroleum refining units, oil and gas pipelines.
5. Aluminum powder has a silver-white luster (generally the color of the metal is mostly black in the powder), commonly used as a coating, commonly known as silver powder, silver paint, to protect the iron products from corrosion, and beautiful.
6. Aluminum burning in oxygen can release a lot of heat and dazzling light, often used in the manufacture of explosive mixtures, such as ammonium aluminum explosives (mixed with ammonium nitrate, charcoal powder, aluminum powder, soot and other combustible organic matter), Combustion mixtures (such as bombs and shells made of aluminothermic agents can be used to attack hard-to-fire targets or tanks, cannons, etc.) and lighting mixtures (eg, cerium nitrate 68%, aluminum powder 28%, shellac 4%).
7. Aluminothermic agents are commonly used to smelt refractory metals and welded rails. Aluminum is also used as a deoxidizer in steel making. Aluminum powder and graphite, titanium dioxide (or other high melting point metal oxide) are uniformly mixed at a certain ratio, coated on metal, and calcined at high temperature to form high temperature resistant cermet. It has important applications in rocket and missile technology. .
8. The aluminum plate has good reflection performance for light. The reflected ultraviolet light is stronger than silver. The purer the aluminum, the better the reflection ability, so it is often used to manufacture high quality mirrors, such as solar cooker mirrors.
9. Aluminum has sound-absorbing properties and sound effects are good, so the ceilings in broadcasting rooms and modern large-scale building rooms are also made of aluminum.
10. Low temperature resistance, when the temperature is low, its strength is increased without brittleness, so it is ideal for cryogenic equipment materials, such as refrigerators, freezer, Antarctic snowmobiles, hydrogen oxide production equipment.
Prospects for the development of aluminum
In the past ten years, with the rapid expansion of China's aluminum industry and the rapid growth of aluminum production, the demand for bauxite has risen sharply. According to the analysis of the aluminum market, the demand for bauxite in China was 136.22 million tons in 2018, an increase of 7.8%. In addition, since 2014, the annual demand for bauxite in China exceeded 100 million tons. The increased demand for bauxite in the large-scale development of the aluminum industry and the reform of mineral resources management will promote the increasing concentration of the aluminum industry.
In terms of import and export, China's aluminum exports are large in scale and have few imports. Analysis of the development prospects of the aluminum industry. In 2018, China exported a total of 4,195,200 tons of aluminum, accounting for 8.01% of domestic aluminum production. Although the proportion of exports showed a downward trend, the volume still maintained rapid growth, and the compound growth rate in 2006-2018 It is 14.50%.
On the supply side, the aluminum industry is also a country with overcapacity in the country. Under the background of resolving the overcapacity of the economy, the policy has clearly controlled the new capacity. The new construction and renovation projects must strictly implement the policy of equal capacity reduction and reduction, and the new supply capacity will be affected by the supply. limit. The author believes that in addition to the current capacity under construction, there will be no new capacity building plans for a long period of time in the future. According to our statistics on the existing electrolytic aluminum production capacity, 46 million tons is likely to be a longer period in China. The ceiling of the aluminum capacity during the time.
According to the “13th Five-Year Plan” non-ferrous metal industry plan, China's total aluminum consumption will reach 43 million tons by 2020. The strong growth of China's aluminum consumption has given birth to a huge market development space, and it also attracts a large number of entrepreneurs. To the aluminum processing industry. Analysis of the development prospects of the aluminum industry, the number of enterprises above designated size in the aluminum processing industry in China has shown an overall growth trend, from 671 in 2012 to 756 in 2018, with a compound annual growth of 2.4%.
Aluminum is the world's second-largest non-ferrous metal with the output and dosage. It has excellent weather resistance, impact resistance, solvent resistance, high temperature and bacteria resistance. It can be widely used in building decoration, food packaging containers and households. Electrical, transportation, aerospace, and electronic communications are important basic materials for developing China's national economy and improving people's material and cultural life.